Sunday, March 8, 2020

Golicinski Essay Example

Golicinski Essay Example Golicinski Essay Golicinski Essay Robert Gordons new book tells the history of Stax Records, the famous Memphis label responsible for some of Southern souls definitive recordings. Stax began in a Memphis garage in 1957 as Satellite Records, a project of Jim Stewart, soon Joined by his sister Estelle Axton, both white. From these humble beginnings, it enjoyed a fairy-tale rise, becoming a revered name, the home of the great Otis Redding, of Soul Man and In the Midnight Hour. Gordon tracks this glorious ascent?†and a vertiginous fall?†as the label eventually collapsed under its own weight. He delivers a compelling tale with maximum effect, drawing on interviews with singers, musicians, songwriters, producers, secretaries, label heads?†everyone he could get his hands on. We know at least two other excellent histories of Stax. The noted chronicler of Southern music, Peter Guralnick, devotes a portion of his book Sweet Soul Music to the label, while also exploring the music of Muscle Shoals, Ala. , and Macon, Ga. In addition, Rob Bowmans Soulsville, U. S. A. devotes itself entirely to the history of Stax. (Bowman earned a Grammy for the liner notes he wrote to accompany The Complete StaxNolt Soul Singles compilation. ) Gordon holds his own. He doesnt appreciate Isaac Hayess album Black Moses, and he makes the occasional cheesy Joke?†Dance? The horizontal dance?†but such minutiae dont obscure the point. The story of Stax is undeniable. In the beginning, you really loved me After a couple of years in the garage, Jim and Estelle moved the operation to an old movie theater and renamed it Stax (Stewart/Axton). They set up a studio in back and a record shop in front. Jim initially felt lukewarm about RB, but Ray Charless Whatd I Say earned his loyalty. : Stewart and Axton established an open-door policy, and Memphiss musicians seeped into the studio in talented, curious clumps. Rufus Thomas, a local performer and D], came by to give recording a shot. He brought his daughter, Carla Thomas. William Bell?†who penned mfou Dont Miss Your Water?† sometimes sang backup for Carla. Booker T. Jones, a talented high school student, skipped class to play horns on a Rufus Thomas session. A1 Jackson, an older, talented drummer who would play with two of souls greatest singers, Otis Redding and A1 Green, knew Booker through club gigs, so he occasionally played at the studio. Jackson provided an injection of punctuality and discipline, a firm rhythmic anchor for the high school kids?†another group of whom busily bonded with Estelle Axtons Cropper, whose guitar playing would help define Stax recordings, drawing the admiration of famous musicians from the Beatles to Lou Reed. Jackson taught Cropper to play his guitar like a drum, emphasizing the instruments rhythmic properties. Jackson also wanted him to pay attention to the beat. l never worked with anyone who thought keeping time was so important, said Booker about Jackson. He would hit you over the head with a drumstick if one eighth ote or a sixteenth note was off. Stays first phase came to a close with national success. Carla Thomas landed Gee Whiz on the charts in 1961, and Jerry Wexler of Atlantic Records swooped in, agreeing to handle distribution for 1 5 cents on the dollar. (Some of Carlas releases also came out on Atlantic rather than Stax. ) The same year, those high school smokers?†now the Mar-Keys?†recorded Last Night, which sold more than a million copies. Here the cruel outside world butts an ugly head into Stays fairy tale. First was the issue of authorship and its rewards The money from a hit goes to the songwriters. Just three people got their names on that record as writers. (Estelle sneaked on her sons name. ) No one cared too much at the time, but it foreshadowed future events. I was too blind, I could not see Stax ascended with dizzying speed. The addition of Donald Duck Dunn on bass cemented and settled the house band, now under the name Booker T. the M. G. s. The integrated group?†hit-making long before the Family Stone or the Jimi Hendrix Experience?†laid down a heavy groove, and they soon had a big song of their own with Green Onions (like Last Night, another instrumental number). More people came to the record store?†or tried their hands in the studio. A guitarist named Johnny Jenkins showed up, high on style, low on substance. (In fairy tales, not everyone turns out to be what he seems. ) But Jenkins had this driver by the name of Otis Redding who kept insisting he could sing The MGS improved steadily. Isaac Hayes stepped in for Booker T when he took a break to attend Indiana University, and Hayes quickly learned how to write popular tunes, with the help of an insurance man named David Porter. Hayes and Porter connected with another duo by the name of Sam Dave, collaborating on a series of racing soul hits. Enter promo-man extraordinaire, A1 Bell, six-feet-four bundle of Joy, two hundred and twelve pounds of Miss Bells baby boy. Soft as medicated cotton and rich as double-X cream. The womens pet, the mens threat and the playboys pride and Joy. enhance the administrations credibility among the [mostly black] employees. We werent a professional company before A1, says Booker T. Jones. We didnt have big business going on. We had big music going on. They did have that. Otis Redding, Wilson Pickett and Sam Dave now consistently landed hits and all recorded classic albums. Bell put the musicians on salary?†it meant they didnt have to work day Jobs and play club gigs and do reco rding sessions to make a decent living. It also led, though, to new proprietary concerns. Suddenly, making music became a livelihood, not a fun outlet on the side. (Gordon terms this new responsibility and its new set of problems weeds in the garden. ) Stax started doing well enough to be choosy. The label decided not to work with Wilson Pickett after his album In the Midnight Hour. (He proved to be royal pain in the studio. ) Stax passed on chances to play with Gladys Knight and Aretha Franklin. Bell even turned the music in a new direction, noting an increased price margin on albums. Stax only released eight albums in 65 and 11 in 66. That would begin to change. You dont miss your water till The end of 1967 and 1968 brought Stays third phase. In December of 1967, Otis Redding and several members of the Bar-Kays died tragically in a plane crash. Its hard to imagine any label coming back from the loss of such an international star. Unfortunately for Stax, that disaster turned out to be Just the beginning. The year 1968 exploded, upheaval everywhere. A sniper shot and killed Martin Luther King in Memphis at a hotel Stax musicians and songwriters frequented. Riots took place across the country. About this time, Jim Stewart realized he had somehow managed to give Atlantic the rights to all Stays master recordings. Atlantics Jerry Wexler claims that it all happened accidentally, that no one read the contract. It turned out that there was a clause whereby we owned the masters, a clause stuck almost exactly halfway through the thirteen-page contract. Atlantic, writes Gordon, owned everything that it distributed for Stax?†even though t said Stay on the label, even though Stax has paid all the money associated with those records and Atlantic had paid none and was at risk for not a single penny. Bottom line: Wexler, one of the shrewdest and cruelest men in the record business, had easily duped the inexperienced Jim. (Wexler insists in the book that he knew nothing about it and tried to give the masters back, but was prevented by the head of It was corporate homicide?†polite, sterile and deadly, writes Gordon. To add insult to crippling injury, Sam Dave Jumped to Atla ntic. We find Stays last stage riddled with great music, violence and greed. The studio engineered the Soul Explosion, releasing 27 albums and even more singles in 1969 to make up for the loss of their masters. A1 Bell looked actively to cross over from R to pop?†he brought in Don Davis, who arranged strings for Motown. Isaac Hayes leapt from behind-the-scenes songwriter to massive solo star, releasing popular albums that influenced the course of R. Big hits brought big money. Whatever remained of the family illusion at Stax, Gordon writes, fell away, exposing a hierarchy of individuals, a business. The hierarchy forced out Estelle Axton, who once mortgaged her house for the label. Bell eventually bought out Jim Stewart in 1972. Musicians and singers also began to spend extravagantly, attracting sharks on the prowl for a cut. The studio hired security; these men too often turned out to be sharks who simply switched sides. Hayes reveled in his new power?†on one occasion, he had bodyguards beat one of his touring musicians nearly to death for ordering too much room service. People began to carry guns?†guns in a recording studio. They worried about being robbed for ostentatious displays of wealth, but also for more troubling reasons?†after he assassination of Martin Luther King, the semblance of racial unity that existed at Stax, and in Memphis, faded. Resentment, hostility and fear were roiling among Memphis business elite They [Stax management] were afraid someone would hide drugs in Stax, then try to bust them. A1 Bell felt that guns were an American institution used mainly by the white majority to maintain and consolidate power. He relates that he felt trapped, and forced to defend himself and his employees. On top of these problems, new considerations suddenly influenced creative decisions. Bell told Gordon, Were talking about major Wall Street corporations and how their decisions and their thinking impacted with us and interfered, and in some instances, prohibited us from producing certain music. Key musicians, including Steve Cropper and Booker T. Jones, couldnt take the situation. They left town for L. A. Meanwhile, the wildly ornate compositions of Hayes didnt necessarily bode well for the studios old standby?†tight, stripped down R. Worst of all? No one could rein in the spending. Stax stayed friendly?†maybe too one asked questions, they Just kept asking for more. Stax grew to have the fifth- ighest revenue of any black-owned business in the nation in 1973. Despite this, the company didnt have a real, structured management system, writes Gordon. Just two years later, deep in debt and out of hits, the whole thing imploded. The white-owned bank used Stax as a scapegoat for fraud charges. The predominantly black record company never had a chance. (Corporate homicide, part two. ) A1 Bell went to trial. Jurors eventually acquitted him on all charges. The story of Stax captures the essence of the American dream. A tight-knit, talented group of working-class men and women, black and white, start out in a garage and go n to make national hits and earn screaming adulation on international tours. They work hard, they get better, they do something unique. They do it without the benefit of silver spoons or friends in high places. They get so big that the Beatles want to Jam with Otis Redding and record Revolver at Stax. Stax also captures the essence of the American nightmare, the one people dont necessarily talk about. In a market economy, success leads to money, and money must be divided somehow. This creates winners and losers, haves and have-nots. Resentment shows up, sits down, festers. Money-making has a way of perpetuating itself. Its an addictive drug. It shifts priorities, so growth becomes the name of the game. People get left behind, or phased out in the name of consolidation. Then guns and violence make a cameo as Americas way of protecting earnings and ensuring loyalty when market-driven expansion tears apart ties of family and friendship. Thats the thing about American fairy tales. All too often, they dont have a happy ending. Elias Leights writing about books and music has appeared in Paste, The Atlantic, Splice Today, and Popmatters. He comes from Northampton, Massachusetts, and can be found at signothetimesblog.

Friday, February 21, 2020

Management alternatives Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Management alternatives - Essay Example This manifests that Sirkin et al’s DICE is not just any other theory concocted by the fancy of academicians but in fact have in fact proved to be grounded on reality. The article focused on the importance of the hard side of change management which could be directly or indirectly quantified as a critical factor in the success of change management over soft side (communication, motivation, etch). The article stressed that the hard factors should be addressed first because failure to address such will result in failure that soft initiatives of change could not even take off because the initiative has already failed. The recommendations/conclusion to address change was also realistic and cognizant of the problems which change initiatives faces in the real world that is why it resulted to an overwhelming success when applied to the real world. The article however was published in 2005 and discussed a study that was conducted in 1992 and completed in 1994. While the change manageme nt approach of DICE was unquestionably successful, it was conducted aeon ago. It goes without saying that the business reality today is way different compared to 1994. Businesses today are already globalized and highly competitive where customers are increasingly getting sophisticated to name few changes in business environment that is different when Sirkin et al’s study was conducted. Thus, the study may have been more relevant if a revisit or a review on its efficacy was conducted to check if it is still valid in today’s present reality. The article could have been timely if it had integrated more recent studies about change management. One of those more recent studies is the Murthy’s concept of change management that dealt with the soft factors of change management which Sirkin et al touched in their articles. The article focused on the importance of people in implementing change in any business organization because â€Å"it is the people who will ultimately cause the change to be a success or a failure. The implications of change on individuals are important without which we can never really hope to manage large scale change effectively† (Murthy 2007: 23). According to Murthy, to effectively implement individual change, there are four approaches to make such change successful; they are behavioral, cognitive and psychodynamic. Murthy’s behavioral approach is to make the reward strategies right to make individuals receptive to change. Basically this entails understanding how individuals perceive change and to understand what makes an individual tick. These approaches are important because without understanding an individual’s behavior, no amount of reward strategy can be successful. The cognitive approach is to link goals to motivation. When an individual is already understood on how he or she perceives change and has already identified the factors that will motivate the individual to be receptive to change, such wil lingness to adapt to change should be aligned with the organizational goals. The psychodynamic approach is to treat people as individuals and understand their emotional states as well as your own (Murthy 2007). Simply put, treat others in the same manner we would like to

Wednesday, February 5, 2020

Structure & Strategies for success Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Structure & Strategies for success - Coursework Example The matrix organization will use the teams of employees to accomplish the set work and take advantage of the strengths and make up for the weaknesses of functional and decentralized forms as we are providing more than one product and service. A strong or project matrix will be adopted where a project manager will be responsible for a particular product. Functional managers will provide technical expertise and assign resources as needed. The format used in the organization will ensure successful implementation of the organization’s purpose and function. The organization will be led by a Chief Executive Officer and will have seventy five employees. Under the executive officer will be the various departmental heads. The organization will have six major departments which include; Product Management, Information and Communications Technology, Research and Development, Sales and Marketing, Finance and Human Resources. Under product management each product and service will have a lin e manager and staff under him or her who will be in charge of all operations of the product from its development to the distribution to the customer. Each product or service will be handled as an independent item but may be combined for promotional purposes. The chief executive officer will oversee the overall implementation of the organizations goals and objectives. The chief product management will ensure that all products and services are developed to the satisfactory of the customer. The chief information and communications technology will handle the needs of the company as well as work in liaison with research and development department and product management in coming up with new products or improving existing ones. The chief research and development will ensure continued innovation of products and services and enhancement of existing products. Chief sales and marketing will be responsible for the marketing of the products and achievement of sales targets set. The chief financ e officer will be in charge of the organizations budget; revenue, costs and expenses while the chief human resources will be in charge of the personnel or work force. Organizational Structure CCC Marketing Strategies for success Strategy is the direction and scope of an organization over the long-term (Johnson & Scholes 17). The company’s strategic plan will help determine where the organization is going over the next five years. A goals-based planning will be undertaken and will focus on the organization’s mission, vision, values and goals and will be adopted by all departments to ensure success of the organization. Strategic planning will be conducted at least once a year to facilitate setting of goals in the coming year. Factors that will be considered in the strategies for success are the products, price, place, promotion, people, process and physical evidence. Products and Services The company is offering a wide range of products and services which include satel lite dish and broadband set up for home and business, IP phone set up, Pdq (credit card machine), satellite television and satellite networking. The products are functional as need for internet use is paramount and on the increase both from home and office. Cable television is also in high demand. Support after installations will be offered for the client and warranty for the equipment will also be given. Price and Place The products and serv

Tuesday, January 28, 2020

Fusion Power for Sustainable Development

Fusion Power for Sustainable Development Introduction Sustainable energy is about using energy wisely and using energy generated from clean sources and clean technologies. This approach is first step to ensuring we have sustainable energy and technologies for present and future generations. Being efficient with our energy will reduce our household and business energy bills, reduce the amount of energy we need to produce in the first place and cut energy related greenhouse pollution. Sustainable energy isn’t just about producing energy to meet the demands, it also means that the energy sources are clean and don’t have a detrimental on the environment. This essay will discuss in-depth how fusion power is the solution the energy crisis which is currently being faced around the world. Fusion is a very clean, green source of power which doesn’t have a detrimental impact in the environment. Nuclear fusion In nuclear physics, nuclear fusion is a nuclear reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei collide at a very high speed and join to form a new type of atomic nucleus. During this process, mass is not conserved because some of the mass of the fusing nuclei is converted to photons (energy). Fusion is also the process that provides Sun and all other stars with their energy; the process involves the collision of atomic nuclei to release energy. Currently scientists and engineers are developing the technology that it can be used in power stations to meet the energy demands that are currently being faced globally. It is hoped that fusion will provide us with the solution for the current energy crisis and provide a clean renewable source of power for future generations. How fusion works In a fusion reaction, energy is released when two light atomic nuclei are fused together to form one heavier atom. This is the process that provides the energy powering the Sun and other stars, where hydrogen nuclei are combined to form helium. To achieve high enough fusion reaction rates to make fusion useful as an energy source, the fuel (two types of hydrogen – deuterium and tritium) must be heated to temperatures over 100 million degrees Celsius. At these extremely high temperatures the fuel becomes plasma. What is plasma? Plasma is the fourth state of matter with the others being solid, liquid and gas. a plasma is an ionized gas, a gas into which sufficient energy is provided to free electrons from atoms or molecules and to allow both species, ions and electrons, to coexist. Plasma is a gas that has been energized to the point that some of the electrons break free from, but travel with, their nucleus. Gases can become plasmas in several ways, but all include pumping the gas with energy. A spark in a gas will create plasma. A hot gas passing through a big spark will turn the gas stream into a plasma that can be useful. Plasma torches like that are used in industry to cut metals. The plasma is also extremely thin and fragile, and is significantly less dense then air. To keep the plasma from being contaminated and cooled by contact with material surfaces it is contained in a magnetic confinement system. Magnetic confinement is the approach that Culham and many other laboratories are researching to provide energy from fusion. A plasma of light atomic nuclei is heated and confined in a circular bottle known as a tokamak, where it is controlled with strong magnetic fields. A magnetic fusion device, the maximum fusion power is achieved using deuterium and tritium. These fuse to produce helium and high-speed neutrons, releasing 17.6MeV (megaelectron volts) of energy per reaction. This is approximately 10,000,000 times more energy than is released in a typical chemical reaction. A commercial fusion power station will use the energy carried by the neutrons to generate electricity. The neutrons will be slowed down by a blanket of denser material surrounding the machine, and the heat this provides will be converted into steam to drive turbines and put power on to the grid. The Tokomak The tokamak is a magnetic confinement system and is a key component which is required for a fusion reaction to take place. Tokomak the base on which the fusion reactors of the future will be build around. It was first invented by the soviet union during the 1960s and it was soon adopted by scientists and engineers around the globe. The joint European Torus(JET ) , which is located at the Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, is the largest and most powerful set up which is currently in operation. tokamak components and functions are as follows: The plasma is contained in a vacuum vessel. The vacuum is maintained by external pumps. The plasma is created by letting in a small puff of gas, which is then heated by driving a current through it. The hot plasma is contained by a magnetic field which keeps it away from the machine walls. The combination of two sets of magnetic coils – known as toroidal and poloidal field coils – creates a field in both vertical and horizontal directions, acting as a magnetic ‘cage to hold and shape the plasma. Large power supplies are used to generate the magnetic fields and plasma currents. Plasma current is induced by a transformer, with the central magnetic coil acting as the primary winding and the plasma as the secondary winding. The heating provided by the plasma current (known as Ohmic heating) supplies up to a third of the 100 million degrees Celsius temperature required to make fusion occur. Additional plasma heating is provided by neutral beam injection. In this process, neutral hydrogen atoms are injected at high speed into the plasma, ionized and trapped by the magnetic field. As they are slowed down, they transfer their energy to the plasma and heat it. Radiofrequency heating is also used to heat the plasma. High-frequency oscillating currents are induced in the plasma by external coils or waveguides. The frequencies are chosen to match regions where the energy absorption is very high (resonances). In this way, large amounts of power may be transferred to the plasma. Why fusion Power is needed By 2050, it is expected that will be a rise in global population from six billion to nine billion and better living standards could lead to a two to threefold increase in energy consumption. At this point in time, 80% of the developed worlds energy comes from fossil fuels. The ever increasing dependency on fossil fuels for generating power has lead to things such as global warming and acid rain and other damaging effects on our health and on the world we live in. Achieving fusion power Fusion is expected to become a major part of the energy mix during the second half of this century because it is seen by so many as being the â€Å"silver bullet† to the l energy problems which is currently plaguing the world . With sufficient funding, the first fusion power plant could be operating in the 2040s. To achieve this, first a series of development steps need to be taken, which are set out in the European fusion roadmap, published in 2013. CCFE is working with its counterparts around Europe to implement this plan, which would see fusion power on the grid by 2050. ITER is the next major international fusion experiment and a crucial step towards achieving commercial fusion energy. It is expected to prove the feasibility of electricity generation from fusion by releasing in the region of 500 megawattsof fusion power (from a 50 megawattinput) for up to 500 seconds. It will be the first fusion experiment to produce net power – ten times more than the amount required to heat the plasma. Demonstration Once the scientific and engineering systems have been tested on ITER, the next stage will be to build a demonstration fusion power plant which will integrate the finding of the research . Designs are already advanced for this prototype machine, known as ‘DEMO. The demonstration is expected to produce in the region of two gig wattsof electrical power to the grid, a similar output to a standard electrical power plant, and could be online in the 2040s. If these trials are successful, it will lead to the first generation of commercial fusion power stations being put into commission. Advantages of fusion power The world needs new, cleaner ways to meet our ever increasing energy demand, as concerns grow over climate change and declining supplies of fossil fuels. Power stations using fusion would have a number of advantages: No carbon emissions. The only by-products of fusion reactions are small amounts of helium, which is an inert gas that will not add to atmospheric pollution. Abundant fuels. Deuterium can be extracted from water and tritium is produced from lithium, which is found in the earths crust. Fuel supplies will therefore last for millions of years. Energy efficiency. One kilogram of fusion fuel can provide the same amount of energy as 10 million kilograms of fossil fuel. No long-lived radioactive waste. Only plant components become radioactive and these will be safe to recycle or dispose of conventionally within 100 years. Safety. The small amounts of fuel used in fusion devices (about the weight of a postage stamp at any one time) means that a large-scale nuclear accident is not possible. Reliable power. Fusion power plants should provide a baseload supply of large amounts of electricity, at costs that are estimated to be broadly similar to other energy sources. Disadvantages of fusion power Unproven on a large commercial scale. No full scale production expected till at least 2050 The power plants would be expensive to build Requires extremely high temperatures. Could produce a net negative amount of energy If cold fusion could be achieved, it would be much easier to implement. The billions in research funding could be spent on renewables instead What is Cold Fusion? Cold fusion describes a form of energy generated when hydrogen interacts with various metals like nickel and palladium. Cold fusion is a field of condensed matter nuclear science CMNS, and is also called low-energy nuclear reactions LENR, lattice-assisted nuclear reactions LANR, nickel-hydrogen exothermic reactions Ni-H, and quantum fusion. The name cold fusion comes from the idea that the temperatures involved are relatively ( room temperature in some instances) low in comparison to those of a fusion reactor which are in excess of a few thousand degrees. Cold fusion gained attention after reports in 1989 by Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischmann, at the time one of worlds leading electrochemists,[1] that their apparatus had produced excess heat, of a magnitude they asserted would defy explanation except in terms of nuclear processes. They further reported measuring small amounts of nuclear reaction byproducts, including neutrons and tritium.[2] The small tabletop experiment involved electrolysis of heavy water on the surface of a palladium (Pd) electrode. The reported results received wide media attention,[3] and raised hopes of a cheap and abundant source of energy.[4] Many scientists tried to replicate the experiment with the few details available. Hopes fell with the large number of negative replications, the withdrawal of many positive replications, the discovery of flaws and sources of experimental error in the original experiment, and finally the discovery that Fleischmann and Pons had not actually detected nuclear reaction byproducts. In 1989, a review panel organized by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) found that the evidence for the discovery of a new nuclear process was not persuasive enough to start a special program, but was sympathetic toward modest support for experiments within thke present funding system. Pons and Fleischmann, skipped the typical route of publishing their study and results in a peer-reviewed science journal because of the pressure they were under from the university of Utah to secure a patent for this potential cash cow which could bring the university a significant amount media attention and flame for the Pons and Fleischmann, instead they take it directly to the press and public. Because they decided to take a unconvential root as to how they published their finding that lead others to question how authentic the information they were being given was. When many scientists from around the world tried to replicate the results from Pons’ without any success and questions began to be asked about the accuracy of the data which they had collected from their cold fusion experiment and this is what ultimately lead to their downfall. Recent developments in cold fusion Andrea Rossi a Italian scientist has said to have created a device called Energy Catalyser (E-cat for short) , is said to be a device â€Å"which purports to use cold fusion to generate vast amounts of power has been verified by a panel of independent scientists†. The research paper, which hasn’t gone through undergone peer review as of yet, seems to confirm both the existence of cold fusion, and its potency: The cold fusion device being tested has roughly 10,000 times the energy density and 1,000 times the power density of gasoline.

Monday, January 20, 2020

The Significance of System Cybernetics for Contemporary Philosophy- Post-Modernity in System Cybernetics :: Philosophy Philosophical Papers

The Significance of System Cybernetics for Contemporary Philosophy- Post-Modernity in System Cybernetics ABSTRACT: I call the union of cybernetics and systems theory 'Systems Cybernetics.' Cybernetics and systems theory might be thought of a major source of today's striking development in cyber-technology, the science of complex adaptive systems, and so on. Since their genesis about the middle of this century, these two have gradually come to be connected with each other such that they have now formed an integrative theory which can be called Systems Cybernetics. This article pays attention to its aspects which are often overlooked, but which have profound significance for contemporary philosophy and our handling of various problems posed by modern societies. I insist that the dominant factors of European modernization are primarily economic and technological, though modernity has often been characterized by philosophical and scientific rationalism. I also insist that there are several problems which deserve particular attention but are made invisible by the economic and technological i nclination of the modern mind. In such a context, the problem of reductionism in modern science and the concept of subject detached from its surroundings are discussed. In order to cope with these problems, main theories of System Cybernetics are applied. Post-modern System Cybernetics — which will be illustrated — is also expected to play an active part. Foreword I am Japanese, and now feel keenly that Japan has been under an accelerating modernization. For example, we are now facing to so-called cyber-revolution, financial Big Ban and so on. On the other hand, the international conference for preventing the temperature rising of the earth caused by carbon dioxide was held in Kyoto just in December, 1997. These situations have made me convinced more and more firmly that system cybernetics has a particular significance for our consideration of the problems in modernization. I specialize in philosophy of science ('theory of science' in a more exact expression), and have long been interested in N. Wiener's cybernetics as well as General System Theory founded by L. von Bertalanffy, while proposing for a decade or so to call the union of these two 'system cybernetics'. In this paper, the significance of system cybernetics in dealing with the problems related to modernization, and its post-modernity as well, will be discussed, together with its relation to philosophy. I am very grateful for the opportunity of submitting this article which may be published just in 1998, the fiftieth memorial year since the publication of Wiener's book, Cybernetics.

Saturday, January 11, 2020

Marriage vs. cohabitation

Marriage is the foundation of family formation in most contemporary societies. It is a contract arrangement that is binding and legally recognized. Cohabitation on the other hand, mimics the structure of a marriage with the exception of legal impediments. In some countries common law relationships are recognized, complete with the legal ramifications in the event of dissolution. However, some societies are hesitant to accord due recognition for cohabitation arrangements for fear that it would undermine the institution of marriage. Studies Conducted In many social researches conducted on relationships, it was found that more couples are resorting to cohabitation arrangements in recent years. In the United States, an increase from 10 percent to 56 percent was noted favoring cohabitation over marriage. The statistics compared was between 1974 and 1994. (The verdict on Cohabitation vs. marriage, 2001) There are many reasons why couples opt for cohabitation arrangements over marriage. First, it is easier to enter into and dissolve. Second, it proposes a more liberated approach to the partnership. It is perceived to endorse a â€Å"freer lifestyle.† (Ambert, 2005, p6) Third, couples cohabiting are not pressured to stay together. Finally, cohabitation is contracted for economic reasons. Comparison Comparing marriage and cohabitation, the question of commitment is most malleable in cohabitation. Although the social structure of both appeared to be the same, it is in the philosophical approach where they differ. The â€Å"freer lifestyle† of cohabitation arrangements raises the questions of fidelity on both partners. The couple is less secure compared to married couples. Exclusivity in this case is missing in cohabitation arrangements. Legality of Marriage Marriage as a legally recognized institution is a binding contract. Once entered into, the couple is expected to fulfill obligations such as financial, child-rearing responsibilities, commitment to care for each other â€Å"in sickness or in health, till death do us part†. Marriage has a sense of permanency compared to the transient nature of cohabitation. In case a marriage is dissolved, appropriate legal measures are applied. The wife can demand from the husband legally for child support and indemnity when the law finds it appropriate. While marriage and cohabitation are generally accepted in society, many would still favor that the relationship be legally recognized. In more conservative societies, cohabitation is an aberration and couples are pressured into legalizing the union. Marriage involves formal ceremonies and social recognition while cohabitation does not. Consequences of Cohabitation In the aspect of dissolution of unions, cohabiting couples are more likely to separate than married couples. In the event cohabitation progresses into a marriage, the dissolution of the union is attributed to the permissive nature of cohabitation. The same attitude is carried into the legalized relationship thus insecurity, commitment and fidelity affects the relationship. Cohabiting couples favor divorce a solution to marital conflicts when compared to married couples. Economic Issues Economically, married couples are better off compared to non-married ones. The nature of marriage unifies the financial resources of the couple while for cohabiting couple autonomy is still expected. Financial spending and planning decisions in married couples are combined efforts while that provision is missing in cohabiting couples. Conclusion In essence, both married and cohabiting couples follow the same social structure except cohabitation does not carry the legal impediments of a marriage. Social acceptability of cohabitation remains mixed as conservative societies still frown on the arrangement for moral and legal grounds. Most would still encourage cohabiting couples to legalize their relationship. While autonomous and liberal philosophies accentuate cohabitation arrangements, they are not enough to prevent dissolution and solve problems that are outcomes of the arrangement. The legally binding nature of marriage deters couples from ending the union because of selfish and whimsical motives. The legal recognition ensures that the social foundation of family remains intact. References Ambert, A. (2005). Cohabitation and marriage: How are they related? The Vanier Institute of the Family. Retrieved 30 May 2007 The verdict on Cohabitation vs. marriage (2001) Retrieved 30 May 2007 Related essay: â€Å"My Ideal Wife†

Friday, January 3, 2020

Influence Of African And European Music On The New World

Jazz is an art form which developed completely in the new world. However, the influence of African and European music spread due to immigration, slavery and trade. Jazz has a complex history which has roots in a diverse range of musical genres. Many factors which affected the development of jazz were intentional. However, many were also circumstantial, and as a result, gave jazz unique elements which otherwise would not be present. Jazz has two main genres of music which influenced it: Western military marches and traditional music which came from Africa and was developed by African Slaves. African slaves, while stripped of most of their culture, were usually allowed to sing vocal songs as they were shown to help get work done. These field hymns originated from the traditional musical practices in Africa, and developed over time. As slaves began setting up escape routes and converting to Christianity, their songs developed coded messages, usually using religious stories such as the E xodus as metaphors for running away. These songs always stayed true to African harmonies, melodies, and rhythms. On the Western side, marching bands were important from the begining of America. At the start of the 19th century, many blacks began being drafted to be musicians in these marching bands. They played an important role in directing the troops in various wars, such as the war of 1812 and the Civil War. After the end of the Civil War, there were many brass instruments in the hands ofShow MoreRelatedJazz And Jazz Culture1273 Words   |  6 PagesWhat is culture? What is African culture? What is Jazz music and where did it come from? How can one culture, in a sense, impact the musical landscape of the whole Western world and eventually assimilate into ‘pop’ culture? 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